AGU 2014

Come and find me or any of my collaborators at AGU this year to discuss our latest results.  Margaret Hartley and I have some great new XANES data collected at Diamond Light Source probing fO2 in enriched mantle domains and tracking its evolution during magmatic processes. I have an invited talk in V038: The Geochemical Diversity of the Mantle Inferred from Hotspots: Five Decades of Debate, where I will present evidence for the ubiquity of concurrent mixing and crystallisation in destroying the primary chemical diversity leaving the mantle at mid-ocean ridges. With Mark Hoggard’s fantastic record of dynamic support in the world’s ocean basins, we have begun to reconstruct spatio-temporal variability in mantle potential temperature over the last 100Ma.

Controls on OIB and MORB Geochemical Variabilty

Authors: Oliver Shorttle & John Maclennan

Concurrent mixing and crystallisation is visible on a local scale looking at melt inclusion and whole rock suites. Here we show that this basic magmatic process extends not only off of Iceland onto the adjacent Reykjanes Ridge, but by spatial statistical analysis can be seen to be present in global MORB datasets. Homogenisation of primary mantle chemical diversity is therefore a ubiquitous phenomenon occurring in magmatic systems. Understanding how this operates is going to be key for reconstructing mantle compositional diversity.

Authors: Oliver Shorttle & Yves Moussallam, Margaret E Hartley, Marie Edmonds, John Maclennan and Bramley J Murton

Recent evidence from Cottrell and Kelley (2013) has indicated that the mantle heterogeneity sampled by MORB and typically identified from studying radiogenic isotope tracers, may also be associated with redox heterogeneity in the mantle. This compelling observation has major implications for the flux of redox sensitive elements throughout the Earth system, for mantle dynamics, and for the melting process itself. In this work we have characterised the changes in mantle fO2 that occur towards the Iceland plume using a suite of basalt samples.

Authors: Margaret E Hartley, Oliver Shorttle, John Maclennan, Yves Moussallam and Marie Edmonds

Melt inclusions record the primary diversity of melts leaving the mantle in terms of their trace and isotopic compositions, and there is the potential for melt inclusions to also record redox heterogeneity of the source.  However, post entrapment processes such as diffusion and crystallisation may compromise the melt inclusion record, resetting melt inclusion fO2 during shallow level processes. To investigate the potential of the melt inclusion archive in terms of fO2 we have studied a suite of melt inclusions from the AD 1783 Laki eruption, Iceland.

A History of Global Mantle Potential Temperatures from Oceanic Crustal Thicknesses

Authors: Mark Hoggard, Nicholas J White and Oliver Shorttle

We know from geophysical observations of gravity anomalies and petrological measurements on primitive basalts that mantle potential temperature is likely to vary by several hundred degrees in the modern Earth.  A record of potential temperature variation in the past is preserved in the crustal thickness of old seafloor, which will be thicker if high potential temperatures during its formation increased melt production. Here, we use Mark’s extensive compilation of reflection and wide-angle seismic profiles to constrain crustal thicknesses throughout the oceanic realm. These observations when combined with a mantle melting model allow us to back out a unique record of spatio-temporal syn- and post-rift variations in mantle temperature.